Using the VPK's meniscus lens to obtain soft-focus.

Some photographers, especially those in Japan, have fitted the VPK meniscus lenses into modern digital cameras to obtain a soft-focus effect for portraiture.

Other lenses such as the Verito have also been used but the VPK lens has its own special following for this purpose.

The VPK meniscus lens and Kodak ball bearing shutter assembly complete is mounted either on a plate made for the purpose or on the plastic cap used to close the camera's lens opening.

The aperture of the VPK lens is set to maximum while the shutter is kept permanently open by setting it to T (time).

These settings enable the digital camera's metering system to calculate the correct exposure and operate its own shutter while using the meniscus lens.

Upper picture obtained from:  HERE

Middle picture obtained from: HERE

Lower picture obtained from:  HERE.